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Mondadori, , is a more modern type of introduction to the comprehension of style and stylistic analysis. Excellently chosen examples, partly analyzed by students, are reminiscent of the French work by Servais Etienne no. Examples are also offered in form of comparative material with aids for the interpretation. There are very good definitions of style problems p. Interpretation de una poesia hermetica Buenos Aires: Losada, ; 2nd edition Alonso intro- duces the reader into the aesthetic difficulties of an obscure modern author of the Mallarme type.
Although he gives much more than an analysis, working it out to an impressive syn- thesis of the elements of modernistic style, the interpretations are the center of his study. In one example, the poet writes: Tu estds de pie sobre la tierra , llena de dientes y reldmpagos. The philologist discovers the beauty and trick of such sugges- tions and vague constructions with his translation: Estds lleva de risas en las que muestras tus blancos dientes, y se entreabren tus labios con reldmpagos de purpura p.
La Renaissance du livre, Cours elementaire , Cours Moyen , also centered around interpretations of hermetic texts. Alonso however is less pedantic and more ingenious. Alonso became the "interpreter" par ex- cellence. A consciously educational explication of the French type has been offered only for Portuguese by F. Goncalves, ; he uses the comparative method in linking together related texts, and surpasses his French models by stressing the inseparability of content and form. A wealth of first class interpretations of poetical texts from the siglo de oro in Spain has been embodied in the theoretical work of Damaso Alonso, Poesia Espafiola see no.
Importance for Criticism and Literary History It is a curious fact that the more exact an explication is, the more it leads to the aesthetic core and thus to the enjoyment of poetry.
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Finally he considers the explication as a means of replacing the impressionistic vagueness in criticism: L'intention en est excellente" p. Auerbach links each text to its cultural background, and makes the changing spirit of the time responsible for the change in the flux of realistic style. With admirable skill, these works try to offer norms for an elegant style and canons for an artistic language with which one may appraise the achievements of good writers. The number of editions reached by the books of Albalat reveals the interest of the French public in verbal art.
These useful books did not de- serve the rebuke of Brunetiere and Faguet in , as they do not deserve the very witty insult which the Normaliens of today aim at them with the parody of Moreas: Albalat, Albalat, morne plaine. The titles of his main works are: Colin, , — 91 — La forma- tion du style par V assimilation des auteurs Paris: Colin, , — 92 — Le travail du style enseigne par les corrections manu- scrites des grands ecrivains Paris: Colin, , — 93 — - Com- ment il faut lire les auteurs classiques frangais Paris: Colin, , — 94 — Comment il ne faut pas ecrire Paris: Plon, , — 95 — Comment on devient ecrivain Paris: Be- ginning always with model authors, Albalat attempts to reach, by abstraction and elimination, a sort of essential determination of style, literary genre, artistic literary history, literary criticism, correct translations of foreign literary works, etc.
Beauchesne, , scrutinizes the aesthetical values of the details: Hachette, , offer not so much a systematic exposition as a light chat on French style. Colin, , is elementary and exclusively peda- gogical. Interesting is the attempt at a scientific art d'ecrire, by the astronomer Abbe Th. Doin, , where style is conceived as a sort of exact science, logic, and common sense. It offers certain fundamental rela- tions, like le mot propre et V 'exactitude , la phrase et la clarte, le role du substantif, V elegance et le bon gout.
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Grasset, , has seen that all the techniques of teaching style are meaningless if separated from the thought which they are bound to express. Thus he was aware of an important modern problem. None the less the French as the ideal heirs of the ancient rhetoricians and the medieval artes poeticae continue their production of style manuals, but with a greater refinement, as can be seen from more recent titles like: These Arts d'ecrire recognize, like the famous pasticheur Reboux, that with one's natural personal style one still can "learn" to be inde- pendent like Mme.
Colette, clear like the Princess Bibesco, lively like Mme. Barbusse, "spirituel" like A. France, pathetic like Maupassant, "evocateur" like A. Daudet, and great like G. Among the imitations of these French pat- terns is a rather original Italian book by G. Hoepli, , written "affinche il lettore conosca tutte le barriere da superare" p.
French, Spanish and Portuguese From a theoretical point of view, the bell seems to toll for the arts d f ecrire in consideration of the sharp distinction made be- tween mannerism and style. The Croce-Vosslerian concept of style, according to which the art of writing can be "true" only if it is the necessary and unique expression of psychological con- 18 Arts of Writing ditions in a writer, would practically exclude the imitation of authors as a lame counterfeit, an external trick in which the very core and heart are lacking.
More than ever before, the psychological-aesthetical method has made clear that le style est de I'homme meme. That was understood in the Spanish world. But we must hasten to make clear that there is not only an artistic, but also an affective concept of style and its selective use. Not only do the literary artefacts have a style, but also the common languages and the non-artistic individual speeches.
This concept of style is the object of Charles Bally's stylistique as opposed to literary stylistics. Eggimann, , and — — Traite de stylistique francaise, 2 vols. Winter, ; 2nd edition, ; 3d ed. He has the merit of having preceded Vossler and Spitzer in modern stylistics.
He follows an idea of Gustav Grober, who distin- guished already between objective and subjective language, and the distinction between langue and parole as made by De Saus- sure. Bally's formula, which revolutionized traditional stylistics and made it a worthy branch of linguistics, not of literature, is this: Bally, the Swiss, has reached full acknowledgment in France where modern treatises follow him closely: Masson, , 2nd edition is a survey of the peculiarities of any form of an enonce as to sounds, spelling, form, syntax, vocabulary, sen- tence, word order and rhythm.
The contribution of Marouzeau, a classical scholar, is the replacement of the older concept of Stylistics 19 stylistics as "une sorte de code du bon francais" by a modern study of "Pattitude que prend l'usage, ecrivant ou parlant, vis-a- vis du materiel que la langue lui fournit," his doubtful aim being to "faire la psychologie de l'auteur de Penonce.
De Gigord, , 8th edition , less pre- tentious, stresses that in an age where the good writers are read very little — even in France, literary par excellence — interest must be stimulated by a systematic introduction into their means of expression. All this seems to suggest that in France the de- cision for the linguistic Bally-type of stylistics versus the literary Vossler-type has been made. The leader Charles Bruneau does not leave any doubt about it. Bally' s type of stylistique, as considering preferably words, syno- nyms, phraseology, metaphor and construction, was able to be re- fined by its application to literature: Presses Universitaires, , actually includes artistic problems, e.
An excellent, and also more practical modern literary stylistics, evidently dominated by the Bally-Marouzeau-Cressot trends, is Henri J. Godin shows how modern authors handle in the most individual manner, syntax and lexi- con, phraseology and figures of speech, how differently they represent the same topic, and to what extent stylistic problems can be clarified by the comparison of an original text with its translation. Eggimann, , but expands to the literary-artistic sector of affective-imaginative language. Mod- ern stylistic adepts lack technical terms to discuss their prob- lems and to circumscribe their findings.
Hueber, , was wise in presenting a sound basic ter- minology for any kind of stylistic studies, revamping the tradi- tional tropes and figures with Latin and French examples. His reasonable concern is that without a minimum of terms agreed upon, the interpretatio moderna, however artistic or stylistic he says "stilsprachlich" with contemptuous quotation marks it may be, becomes an aesthetical game without any orientation of philological seriousness.
Seara Nova, , uses Bally selectively and combines his method with those of Amado Alonso and Spitzer. Points of interest in this book are word-fantasy, plurality of means of expression, evoca- tive efforts, intellectual and affective values of the adjective, and stylistic effects of the concordance of the participle. For this latter case he discusses the variants of a famous strophe of the Lusiadas describing the march of Leonor de Sepulveda through the African desert: Despois de ter pisado pisada longamente dos delicados pes a area ardente. He makes his decision in favor of the feminine form, because only the feminine form anticipating area ardente suggests the vision of the immense desert, exactly what the author wants to emphasize.
Rumanian and Italian It is amazing that the modern concept of the problem of style had been pointed out in masterly fashion as early as in a little Rumanian treatise, existing in the New York Public Li- brary, but practically unknown: Incercare de psihologie Uterara Iasi: Institutul de linguistica romana, , handled the same problem with modern equipment. He, too, like Lapa, combines the approach of Bally with that of Spitzer by adding to the emotional the fanciful elements in the speech of his country.
Actually, without saying so, he follows the prin- ciple of the syntactician, Eugen Lerch, as he looks stylistically Appraisal of Details 21 at phenomena like accent, sound, phonetic symbolism, rhythm, the parts of the sentence, morphology, syntax, word formation and vocabulary, topoi, repetition, ellipses and proverbs. His material comes from direct observation as well as from popular authors like Caragiale and Creanga.
If we include in the list of modern stylistics the Italian elementary sketch by B. Le Monnier, , which has been made a still better textbook under the title — — Elementi di stilistica e di versificazione italiana lb. The classical philologists do not think differently today about the problem of style. The Style of Sophocles Cambridge: Press, , says pp. We can isolate and analyze most of the elements of which a style is composed.
The choice and use of words, the sound of them separately and in combination, the order of words, the structure of clause and sentence, the use of figures of speech and thought; all these can be analyzed. But the final secret lies not in them but in the way they are used and blended and related to the thought. In other words, style studies must be linked to structure studies. Appraisal of Details of the Art of Writing What still remains interesting is the discussion by clever critics of certain stylistic propensities of great writers in little things, which in minor writers would be faults.
NRF, , followed by — — Quatre etudes de style au microscope Paris: The conclusions which Criticus draws from his method of checking on the cor- rectness or incorrectness of minutiae, while wholly neglecting the organism of the works from which the examples are taken, would revaluate the authors on an almost absurd scale. Criticus has collected a third series, called — — Le style au microscope Paris: These propos do not make the absurd attempt to correct but to discover in the authors, even unknown ones, what is for them and not for others une reussite stylistique.
Messageries du livre, , he notes the author's typical words, such as amour, desir, tendresse, ferveur, passion, extase, vo- lupte, ivresse, fremissement, or underlines his habit of putting long adverbs before adjectives, such as "obstinement doulou- reux," "morbidement doux," or even between verbs and their objects: Bendz has done a similar study on the language of Valery — — Paid Valery et Vart de la prose Goteborg: Cumpert, , where he picks out sentences with comments such as "Se suivent en trille gracieuse la plupart des voyelles de la langue" p.
Bendz expanded recently his style studies, which in Sweden had appeared in as Nutida fransk prosakonst, under the title: Notes sur Gide, Lacretelle etc. Les Presses de la Cite, Style proper, however, is the concern of the essay on Mauriac only, pp. Etudes de style faites a Radio-Lausanne Bienne: Chandelier, char- acterizes briefly the typical expressions of twenty-six authors from Villon to Verlaine.
Gallimard, , talks about the material a good writer "should" use, stressing the suggestive character of certain words and the importance of metaphors and analogies. Then he proceeds to the types of great symphonic composition represented by Mallarme and Proust. An Englishman and a Frenchman together have selected ninety representative passages and prefaced them with pertinent remarks on style and the problem of translation in order to open the eyes of the stylistically blind: Such a demon- stration made by capable critics can be very illuminating since exaggerations are like a magnifying glass for looking at genuine style.
This principle was brought home in two books: Ivoire, , and L. Certain faits divers are here retold in the manner of different authors. NRF, did not despise this highly intelligent and artistic play. By overcharging the striking features of a particular style one can learn, besides the fun which these pastiches carry with them, exactly what is mannerism as opposed to real style of spontaneous expression. Grasset, , latest edition Other pastiches open the mind of the public at large to literary criticism, e. The content is overstressed as compared to form in Anonymous — — Faux en ecriture, aux depens de Jean Paulhan, Alain, Apollinaire, etc.
Here in thirty-five parodied authors the erotical element is somewhat exploited. It seems a good sign for the stylistic importance of the lit- erary parody, that "Les Pasticheurs" are treated as "auxiliaires de la critique" in Henri CLOUARD — — Histoire de la litterature francaise du symbolism e a nos jours, II, de a Paris: Michel, , pp. A similar work of Gandon's is Cent ans de jargon ou de Vecriture artiste au style canille P.: The Italian parallel consciously based on scholarly, modern analytical principles p. So- ciedad General Espanola de Libreria, Vol. In his introduction Chabas makes a good distinction between estilo and estilizacion, una voz de falsete vol.
Excluding as "voz de falsete," e. Ricardo Leon, he finds on the other hand unique personal style features in Gabriel Mir6, the landscape-painter with Valencian semantics; Antonio Machado, the poet of a style "desnudo, japones, de ensueno, clasico" ; Juan Ramon Jimenez, poet of "vibraciones que dan eternidad a su palabra"; Manuel Machado, stylist of "nuevos oleos liricos que copian los originales" ; and other traits appearing in Valle Inclan, Azorin, Baroja, Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, Perez de Ayala, Ramon Gomez de la Serna, Benavente, Marquina, Arniches, Gregorio Martinez Sierra.
Gallimard, , which is rather an analysis of philosophical thought in certain writers. Different Drafts The transition from any appraisal of literary art to the truly philological and scientific approach is reached as soon as the comparative method is used. If comparative results are not fundamentally philological, they are at least an objective means of appraising the stylistic usage of words and locutions. Abbe Vincent compares the style of the Introduction a la vie devote in its final edition of with the first one of , and shows how the devout humanist was changing his almost flamboyant style into a preclassical style through a more rigid concept of the logical-mental elements, by introducing a new rhythm into a prose with "finales habilement bouclees et bien tombantes," and finally, by a more intense poetization of the original images through a transformation of certain similes into condensed meta- phors.
The author points out that the stylistic consciousness of the seventeenth century was already present in St. Francis de Sales in the sense of the poignant phrase of Mme. Thus Vincent, on the basis of a stylistic comparison alone, bestows on St. Francis de Sales the honor of having per- fected the classic numerus before Guez de Balzac. Facultes catholiques, , discovers by comparison the aim of Mon- taigne's style, "Pexpressivite des mots choisis.
Caen, , conversely has attained aesthetic-psychological re- sults from the comparison of V. Hugo's variants, which he has supplemented in a complementary thesis — — Essai sur la psychologie des Contemplations Paris: Glotz infers from the relation between the final form and the first and second, on the basis of cancelations and correc- tions, certain principles about the process of creation in V. This intelligence is reflected by the antithetical and symmetrical sense of order stronger than Hugo's lyrical nebulosity. It may be that Glotz is going a little too far in formulating such far-reaching conclusions about the poet's evolution as to designate emphatically the year to be the turning point from Romanticism to Realism.
Using the variants of V. Franz has given other instances of the same type of investigation, e. Cahiers libres, , limits himself to comparing some passages of the great novelist's work as they appeared for the first time in NRF with the definitive version that Proust gave them in book form. He also adds some introductory observations with the suggestion that if the reader himself collaborates when examining this study, the variants will undoubtedly help him "remonter a la source mysterieuse du genie" p. A similar approach to Marcel Proust can be found in D.
This type of study can be done with intricate refinement. Si Ton voit, ici et la, l'ecrivain brillanter son style, semer des ad- jectifs, ajouter quelques touches pittoresques, on constate surtout qu'il a cherche une clarte, une precision toujours plus grandes. Later variants do not necessarily constitute a development toward better art, as is assumed by G. A particular piquancy is inherent in the style corrections of a style theoretician, as shown by H. The descriptions of nature, as well as of the armies, the elephants, and the chieftains, offer the same precise conclusions as to Flau- bert's growing perfection in picturesqueness, rhythm, and melo- diousness all combined, but seem slightly detrimental to the original clarity.
A study of variants from different viewpoints precedes the edition of the first cast of V. Hugo's novel Les Miserables: Premiere version des Miserables Paris: Bovary," MH, , is a marvelous inventory of original vir- tuoso passages of description sacrificed to a more mature taste. Flauberts Tentation de Saint An- toine. Coffern Press, , discusses variants as the changes which result "from the effort of the intellect to filter off all that was emotional and super- fluous" p. A fine study of emendations in the Spanish field is Edward M.
This study was continued on a broader basis in Romera-Navarro's — — Estudio del autografo de 'El Heroe' de Gracian. Ortografia, correcciones y estilo Ma- drid: This book represents pains- taking investigations. The motives for the cor- rection are never figures of speech as such, but only the care for appropriateness, precision, clarity, vigor, variety, liveliness, con- cision, equilibrium, elegance. Thus all types of expression, par- ticularly the Gongoristic hyperbaton, were eligible for stylistic improvement. In the Italian area there is a very fine study of variants con- cerning the Macaronic Latin: In general Petrarca Sources 29 goes from a rhetorical to a lyrical concept, or a compromise be- tween both, before he marks his respective, corrected passage with Hoc placet.
Ma che fanno i colori dinanzi al cieco 2. Ma non pur mo' cominci ad esser cieco 3. Ma canto al sordo e color mostro al cieco 4. Ma canto al sordo e faccio lume al cieco. Sansoni, , , shows by the comparison of two drafts of a Petrarchan sonnet Nel tempo lasso de la notte, quando and Tutto V dl piango; e poi la notte quando how, out of two Dante reminiscences, can grow an entirely original poem which nobody would suspect to be "literature" and not life. Sources The stylistic investigation of poetical sources has undergone a deep transformation.
While studies of the older type proceeded in this field without any aesthetic inspiration, and made a plagi- arist out of every later poet, the modern method of investigation makes use of the minute examination of sources only in order to evaluate the originality of a later poet despite his sources and to affirm the continuous enrichment of the stylistic treasures of speech.
The virtuoso language of a rhetorical and lyrical author like Chateaubriand proved to be a fertile subject for source studies by Blaise BRIOD — — Uhomerisme de Chateau- briand Paris: Champion, , C. Les sources des Trophees Paris: Presses franchises, , dedi- cated to each poem a study on its probable sources, in view of the literary patrimony present in the poet's consciousness. Henry et Vart de Maupassant, Diss. Ross is convinced that O. Henry learned from Maupassant a whole series of narrative devices: In view of the different forms of literary portraits and the questions of priority and imitation in seven- teenth century France, J.
It would be a methodologically sound basis not to consider as style studies any vague source suggestions. The source must show unique striking features as a formal principle which pro- duces statable, formal variations in its imitation. TORREY —— "Rousseau's Use of the Sunrise Theme," RR, XXXII , , has attempted to explain descriptive details of this topic by showing that Rousseau did not stylize directly observed nature, but that he used literary patterns, namely his predecessors, Diderot and Albrecht von Haller, Thus, sometimes it is the manner of treatment of the same subject which makes us understand the stylistic influence of one author on another.
Different scholars have been interested in Ariosto's influence on the French poet Philippe Desportes; they are: Droz, , A. Cameron finds fault with Desportes' over-clarifica- tion p. Presses Sources 31 Modernes, , in which he found that the misunderstood beau of Ariosto was turned into a sentimental joli in France.
A great deal of stylistic material can be found in a similar work by Chandler B. The profound investigation of the stylistic relation of an author to his principal sources can offer most tangible results which are far from being hasty realizations. This has been clearly shown by N. Besangon Bari, , where by means of com- parison of twenty-one Contes by La Fontaine with twenty-one Novelle by Boccaccio, perspectives are attained on the individual style as well as on that of race, epoch and country.
Source and imitation must not belong to different literatures however. The investigation of the sources may also include more subtle suggestions going beyond the philological comparison of texts. Helmut HATZFELD —— "Don Quijote und Madame Bo- vary," IPh, III , ; , has made clear that the French author imitated the Spaniard in his fusion of the char- acters with the cultural background, the combination of empathy and criticism, the symphonic presentation, the creation of an atmosphere by exterior details, and the raising of description to vision by an impressionistic technique in composition and style, A similar study was the concern of Albert PAUPHILET — — "Ronsard a la maniere du Roman de la Rose," MH, , where a single theme Bel Accueil invited the imitator to wonderful, free variations.
Image, Influence and Sensibility," YFS, II , , that the unperceived "stylistic influences, not the evident ones, must be analyzed. Edition des Artistes, had the ingenious idea of tracing back the single elements of the famous novel to decisive passages in Fournier's correspondence, which elucidate details such as his preference for sea and music metaphors, the language of the peasants, the motifs of "la petite fille," of "la jeune fille ideale" fit for a castle, and of "la revelation d'un monde nouveau" taken from the then recent aviation.
Finally there is in this cor- respondence Fournier's whole poetics on the roman-reve, its realism, its sensibility and their insertion into life, and the stress on atmosphere inherent in the single hours of the day. Precise information lies hidden under the vague title of a comprehensive study of D.
Je suis dans un salon comme line mandoline Oubliee en passant sur le bord d'un coussin, etc. Consejo, , has worked out to what extent the poems of this Saint, so highly original, are definitely rooted in the Canticle of Canticles, in Spanish folk poetry and in Garcilaso de la Vega, but less directly than indirectly through the spiritual travesty of the eglogvs by Sebastian de Cordoba see also nos.
Colegio trilingue, , , underlines that Clarin's common interest with Flaubert in overcoming the bourgeois romanticism entirely removes from him the brand of a slavelike imitation of Madame Bovary, the more so because a transposition of the milieu certainly belongs to original creation. The same holds true for the relation Bovary: Quatrains of iambic tetrameters and trimeters alternating ab ab, are replaced by 8-line stanzas, each containing an average of 8 syllables, with the pattern abbe decc.
Con toscos instrumentos nos aproximamos a una tierna misteriosa criatura: The artistic relation between San Francesco's Cantico del Sole and its biblical sources, Psalm and the Hymn of Daniel, has been carefully established, as to form and movement, by J. To observe how Ariosto digested and used Virgil was the concern of P. It is interesting to know how the lyrical genius of Camoes, though opposed to the rank and file of the sixteenth century Petrarchists, achieved an artistic recast of Petrarch's motifs ; for that reason Camillo GUERRIERI explained — — La trasfigurazione di motivi petrarcheschi, on pp.
Ruben Dario y Miguel Angel," N Buenos Aires, 25 de septiembre de shows Ruben Dario's "Lo fatal," expression of the modern pathological fear of death, to be Michelangelo's "Caro m'e '1 sonno e piu l'esser di sasso," expression of a Renaissance-scher- zando, with a quite different psychology. Amado Alonso comes to the conclusion that a reasonable imitation as opposed to pla- giarism leads the imitating poet to reveal his most intimate originality. Stylistically Related Topics Style investigation, like ordinary philology, tries to find out — with artistic implications — a relation between two texts, one of which does not depend directly on the other, but is related to it rather through a common source, remote affinity, or cultural en- vironment.
In this sense Donald F. A particular type, two different stylistic variations of the same theme in poetry and prose is the problem of G. This discovery encouraged Silver to establish other direct stylistic sources for Du Bellay, such as Homer, Horace, and Theocritus, together with theoretical con- siderations in his — — article "Du Bellay and Hellenic Poetry.
Certainly it was the preacher who imitated the poet in word order, themes, phrase- ology, images, and stock constructions. Paravicino, thus equipped, however, can express his thanks to El Greco for having painted his picture in a more elegant Gongoristic style than Gon- gora himself used for his own picture at a later date. Smith College, , Source comparisons on a large scale between dramas or novels should be confined to the limbo of the "Stilforschung. Rostock, , belong to this marginal realm. The latter comparative problem was approached, how- ever, in truly stylistic fashion by G. Cirot tries to "locate" Guevara's descriptions by parallelizing them with similar ones from Cervantes, Quevedo, Gracian, Lilian and Zavaleta.
But she is an even "purer" style-investiga- tor when she works on forms independent of thematic implica- tions. Thus she found out that the famous clause at the begin- ning of Don Quijote — — "De cuyo nombre no quiero acor- darme," RFH, I , , has nothing to do with un- pleasant prison reminiscences of Cervantes, but is an old formula handed down from Herodotus through the centuries and is des- tined, it should be added, to give a certain rhythm to the sentence.
Psychological Similarities and Contrasts Reflected in Style The "source" is often negligible or non-existent if psychologi- cal affinities are at issue. Racine's artistic indebtedness to Euripides, Seneca, Ovid and others, in spite of his own originality due to a quite different psychology, has been clarified in many details by C.
The Tristan-theme as nationally treated in structure and style by an Old French and a Middle High Ger- Psychological Similarities 37 man poet has been elucidated by A. Ihre konstruktiven Sprachformen Mun- chen: The theme of the lover's abandonment as treated in the three famous French romantic poems by Lamar- tine, V. A less inspiring, rather clumsy and annoying comparative study of themes, strophes, verses and expression types in two late medieval contemporaries is J. On the style differences between Racine and Goethe we have two studies: Both authors establish fundamen- tal — but alas!
Spitzer sees in Racine's style the expression of passion, in Goethe's that of moderation ; Merian-Genast finds in Racine a style of sociability, in Goethe a style of personality. Knaeps, , compared in banal fashion the individual romantic procedure of the German writers in general with the social-classical patterns of the French.
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Jose Manuel BLECUA — — "Algunos aspectos del Laber- into," Ca, I , , compares this work of Juan de Mena with works of other contemporaries and with Gongora's Soledades to bring out the unique content-form relations and the definite pre-baroque character of the Laberinto. Band , He un- derscores in this first essay only their common stylistic features, their preference for the concrete in figures of speech, vocabulary and paraphrases, with the syntactical consequence that the verb is replaced by the adjective, and that the decisive word is iso- lated by means of inversions.
The domination of the substantive is here further enhanced by means of hyperbole and the use of the epithet. Description is superseded by the condensed image, and the narrative element is eliminated by a series of metamor- phoses. The sentence is an arabesque with well calculated si- lences and sensations. El conocimiento de lo absoluto por medio de las palabras," FHC, III , , repeats his statements of with more pretentious formulas: Este continuo esfuerzo tendiente a despejar de toda cosa la realidad material instable, y esta larga frase en arabesco es lo que con- stituye el fondo comun de Gongora y Mallarme p.
Rafael LAPESA —— "La Jerusalen del Tasso y la de Lope de Vega," BAE y XXV , , sees in Tasso the last example of refined Aristotelian poetics, equilibrium and "gravita riposata," whereas he considers Lope the destroyer of this equilibrium by "el gesto espectacular," "bravatas," "rodo- montadas," "ejemplaridades hiperbolicas" and "descompostura. Kate BRDDT — — "Confronto do ponto de vista da 'ideia' e do 'estilo' entre o conto 'Mae' de 'Os meus Amores' Trindade Coelho e o conto 'Mater Dolorosa' de 'A cidade do vicio' Fialho de Almeida ," B, X , , from an aesthetic-psycho- logical angle, distinguishes in the style of Coelho the simple expression of a feminine sensibility; in the style of Fialho de Almeida, a pomposity which is striking for a naturalist.
Reconstruction of Lost Texts by Stylistic Criteria The method of reconstruction of lost medieval texts, so im- pressively wielded by Ramon Menendez Pidal, becomes style in- vestigation as soon as the philologist does not reconstruct words and lines, but characters and actions of a fragment. Structure and details of extant works of the same poet are supposed to reveal his categorical and ne varietur disposition of any artistic material. This is the way in which the archeologist provides mutilated statues with arms and legs. Admitting these premises as correct, we may call excellent a study concerned with the stylistic reconstruction of Chretien de Troyes' fragment Perceval from the style scheme of the other preserved works: She vindicates the two clear-cut stylistic methods, of the Poema and of the Chronicle, as sufficient to reconstruct the lost original epic.
The boldest at- 40 Stylistic Comparison of Texts tempt in stylistic reconstruction is A. Dali replaced the sur- prises, the disordered spontaneity flowing from the collective, anonymous, and impersonal source of the irrational with the "systematization" of disorder, thus restoring the rights, per- sonal vision, complexes, and obsessions to the creative artist. Dali said repeatedly that he distrusted "spontaneity," in which he found "the conventional and stereotypical taste of the un- varying restaurant crawfish. Dali has endlessly ruminated on the word ever since. In The Visible Woman, he says, "Paranoia uses the external world to put forward the obsessive idea, with the troubling peculiarity of making the reality of that idea valid for others.
The reality of the external world serves as an illustration and a proof, and is placed in the service of the reality of our own minds. The paranoid delusion, with its exacerbated egocentrism, represents only an extreme, pathological case of the creative vi- sion and mind.
It was only much later that Breton, liberated from the ascendancy Dali had exerted over him and the group, would deny any originality to his paranoid criticism, a method, he would say, inspired "by the lesson of Cosimo and da Vinci: I liked his comic humor, always a step ahead of his ideas, liked his com- plexes, his seriousness, his wild imagination, liked the way his brain worked. It was always in turmoil, an endlessly churning outboard motor, as Picasso said.
I sometimes liked his paint- ings as well. In Minotaure, which liberally opened its pages to him, his megalomania found a marvelous springboard. Under strange titles, these texts of pseudoscientific rigor, in which Dali gave free rein to his humor and his obsessions, were some- times permeated by fantastic flashes of insight. In reading them, you entered the realm of madness, but without escaping a closely argued, persuasive, almost always convincing dialectic. Such was the case in particular for "Millet's Angelus," which ap- peared in Minotaure as the introduction to a long essay entitled "The Tragic Myth of Millet's Angelus.
According to Dali, it was glaringly obvious that the pitchfork thrust into the ground next to the man, and the wheelbarrow filled with gape-mouthed potato sacks behind the woman, symbolized the male and female genitalia. He even attributed the incredible popularity of the painting to its latent eroticism. Dali was so obsessed with it that, for years, he put the Angelus in his own paintings and collected all the objects printed with this "crepuscular simulacrum.
And no one who has read Dali's interpretation can see this couple in prayer with the same innocent eyes as be- fore. His perverse dialectic hit its mark. Suddenly, many other canvases by Millet — The Reapers, The Hay Balers, The Winnower, and so on — became suspect, charged with erotic, subconscious, dis- guised impulses. Similarly, the meaning of William Tell, an- 42 other of Dali's disconcerting obsessions, changed once he had unveiled its "tragic myth.
In William Tell, he unmasked the monstrous legend of a father's incestuous mutilation of his son. Another of Dali's discoveries was art nouveau, whose "psy- chopathological" character aggravated his delusion to the point of paroxysm. It was through him that I first heard about Gaudi, architect of the Sagrada Familia, the unfinished ex- piatory church in Barcelona. His admiration for the Catalan creator of art nouveau was boundless.
As a child, Dali had often been taken for walks in Park Giiell — also Gaudi' s handi- work — and he confided to me how impressed he had been, how the enchanting vision of that delusional architecture had marked him for life. He found the same convulsive lines, the same eroding caves, jagged rocks, and even furious waves in the undulations of Gaudi's stones, in the convulsions of his wrought iron works.
His houses, "created for madmen and sex maniacs," seemed to be modeled in the spun sugar of an orna- mental cake, and Dali assimilated them to the sweets of an "exhibitionistic and ornamental confectionery. He photographed Gaudi's architecture in Barcelona, 1 did the art nouveau of Paris. I began with the turn-of-the-century busts and vases Dali had bought at flea markets. They were decorated 43 with water lily women, nenuphar women, their bodies emerg- ing from floral exuberance, their hair disappearing into aquatic vegetation.
Then I photographed a few turn-of-the-century houses with their contorted facades, their "pillars of feverish flesh," and also the overly ornamental metro entrances that filled Dali with wonder.
The Last Songs of Autumn: The Shadowy Story of the Mysterious Count of Lautréamont
I also photographed robots for In the Paradise of Phan- toms by Benjamin Peret, perhaps the purest, the most intransi- gent of surrealist poets. I like his mind, fertile with oddities and surprises, curious about everything. One day, he led me to the "Concours Lepine," a regular training ground for chimeri- cal, puerile, or fanciful inventions, even delusional dreams. We picked our way through the stalls of "inventors" — Marcel Duchamp was there one day, with his graphic disks called "ro- toreliefs," spinning and spiraling through space — and, among the inevitable automatic cradles, gadgets for threading needles, ointments for getting rid of foot warts, and stitch-counters for knitters, we happened upon about twenty absolutely loony finds, which, with their unintentional humor, their gratuitous- ness, deserve to be numbered among the craziest surrealist objects.
Also for Minotaure, I photographed the sculptures of Alberto Giacometti — he had joined the surrealist group two years ear- lier—in his studio on rue Hippolyte-Maindron, which even at that time looked like a plaster grotto invaded by stalagmites: The Palace, The Hour of Traces, also called The Suspended Ball and other objects that "operated symbolically" and worked at being figu- rations of dreams, unconscious feelings, repressed desires.
He was touched to discover that the love object had been unconsciously described in it, as had a nocturnal stroll with her to the vegetable and flower markets, and sometimes down to the most insignificant details. The woman with "long ashen hair" had a music hall act as a nymph, and the lovers' walk took them to the nymphs on Jean Goujon's Fontaine des Innocents at Les Halles, as the poem said. The text of "Sunflower Night" — the title was in- spired by the Saint-Jacques Tower, which rises from the city like a sun — repeated one by one every foreshadowing, premoni- tory line of the poem, compared the latent content of these lines to the actual events, which, according to Breton, were a belated fulfillment of them.
According to the key notion of "communicating vessels, " very similar to Goethe's "elective affinities," our unconscious governs not only our dreams but our real life as well, and sometimes anticipates later events, chance meetings. The randomness of our lives thus becomes an "objective randomness. The text appeared in Minotaure — and later in Mad Love — along with my illustrations. But, contrary to what Breton believed at the time, these photo- graphs were not taken specially for him. I had already had them for some time, even the Saint-Jacques Tower as he described it, "under its pale veil of scaffolding.
No one still believed the ca- tastrophe could be avoided. Everyone feared the worst. And yet, on 15 November of that year, the largest retrospective exhi- bition of Picasso's works — a kind of apotheosis — was supposed to open at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, under the title Forty Years of His Art. Picasso wanted to spend the summer in Antibes. But he had barely arrived there in July when he learned of the accidental death of Ambroise Vollard. It was a blow for him. Although the famous art dealer was no longer buying Picasso's canvases and drawings, he was still publishing numerous deluxe editions illustrated by him.
Vollard had of- ten come to see him in June to discuss his projects. In particu- lar, Picasso was toying with the idea of collecting all his writ- ings in a single volume, illustrated with his color prints. And Vollard had enthusiastically agreed. His death put an end to their collaboration. Picasso had to come back to Paris. He re- turned to Antibes after the art dealer's funeral and went back to work.
Impressed and attracted by spear fishing by the light of lanterns flickering in the night on the sea surrounding the ramparts, he was close to finishing his large painting Night Fish- ing in Antibes, when he was caught off guard by the general mobili- zation. The imminence of war, his worries over the fate of his works, persuaded him to rush back to Paris, an unrecognizable Paris, a city in confusion, already emptied of three-quarters of its population. I ran into him at Saint-Germain-des-Pres. He was a worried, distraught man who did not know what to do. He ordered crates, began to have his paintings wrapped up, packed a thousand books and objects on rue La Boetie and in 48 his new studio on rue des Grands- Augustins.
But his works were too widely dispersed: There were too many things to res- cue, to save. Discouraged by the exhausting, unpleasant task, which was proving as laborious as moving the Louvre Museum, he abruptly ended it. He, so concerned about the fate of his works, sometimes affects the greatest indifference toward them. The next day, war was declared and Europe was thrust into the storm, while Ger- many, with the help of the Soviet Union, proceeded to crush Poland. At that moment, Life magazine urgently asked me for a se- ries of photos of Picasso and his work for the occasion of its ex- hibition, which was set to open two months later in New York.
But how could I take them? How could I reach him? I learned through friends he had come back to Paris on 7 September, but for only a day. As a foreigner, he had to obtain authoriza- tion to stay in Royan. Fortunately for me, he had not found enough canvas among Royan merchants. He then made the decision to return a second time to Paris. He arrived on 12, September and stayed for two weeks. I found him one morning on rue des Grands-Augustins. He was in excellent humor. Of course, Paris had already as- sumed its sad war face, muffled in darkness at night, all its lights out, all its windows boarded up, its streets lit only by the blue glow of its streetlamps.
But the turn the "phony war" had taken had calmed people's minds a bit. The danger of bomb- ings seemed to have been averted for a time. The city was begin- ning to look more normal in daytime. The cafes, movie the- aters, and the many stores which, in the first panic, had closed their doors — even the Cafe de Flore — started to open again. Nonethe- less, he was prepared to devote an entire day to me.
I wanted to photograph him in his new studio, which he was not yet living in, and in the cafes of Saint-Germain-des- Pres, where he had been a regular for five years, since his sepa- ration from his wife. The middle-class life on rue La Boetie, his high society contacts and success, had managed to distract and amuse him, to flatter his vanity; but in the end they weighed on him. Some people thought he had sown his wild oats, had forever forgotten his youth, his laughter, his practical jokes of days gone by, his supreme freedom, his joy in being with friends, that he had "settled down" for good: The bohemian life once again gained the upper hand.
Stricken, wounded by his marital troubles, fed up even with painting, left alone in his two apartments, he had turned to Jaime Sabartes, his best friend from childhood, who, along with his wife, had long ago settled in Montevideo, then in the United States. Picasso asked him to return to Europe and live with him. It was like a distress call. He was enduring the most serious crisis of his life. And Sabartes came in November, moved in with his friend on rue La Boetie, and began to orga- nize his papers and books, to decipher his poems and type them up.
After that, the man with extremely sharp eyes and the man with extremely myopic eyes were almost always seen to- gether, like the traveler and his shadow, at the Brasserie Lipp, Les Deux-Magots, or Cafe de Flore, three central meeting places in Saint-Germain-des-Pres, which at that time was be- ginning to supplant Montparnasse.
For Sabartes, spending long hours in crowded, smoky, poorly ventilated rooms was pure torment. And they rarely left before midnight. But what wouldn't he have done to make his friend happy?
They came in taxis or sometimes on foot to the intersection of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, most often accompa- nied by Elft, the dog from the "cafe period. The ceremonial was always the same: Boubal, the Auvergnat owner, greets him and lights his Gauloise for him; Picasso says a kind word to the cheerful, blonde Mme Boubal, perched high on her observation post at the cash register; he orders a half-bottle of Evian, does not drink it; Sabartes, who comments on the day's events with Spanish friends, watches Picasso like a mother hen; Elft slinks among the tables and begs sugar off customers; his master chides them, fearing sweets will damage his dog's eyes.
On an earlier day, he had already noticed the grave, drawn face of the young woman at a nearby table, the attentive look in her light-colored eyes, sometimes disturbing in its fixity. She had been moving in surrealist circles since When Picasso saw her again in the same cafe in the company of Paul Eluard, who knew her, the poet introduced her to Picasso. Dora Maar had just entered his life. I myself had known Dora for five or six years. Like me, she was beginning to do photography. Neither of us yet had a lab and for some time we had done our printing in the same Montparnasse darkroom, which a mutual friend, an American, had made available to us.
Dora's father was an architect of Croatian or Yugoslavian descent, her mother a Frenchwoman from Touraine. She had lived in Argentina for a long time with her parents and spoke fluent Spanish. Some- times we had exhibits together. But now her presence at Pi- casso's side made my own presence a delicate matter. Dora was better situated than anyone to photograph Picasso and his works. And, at the start of their affair, she jealously guarded that role, which she considered a prerogative, and which, in fact, she assumed with diligence and talent.
It was she who pho- tographed his sculpted pebbles and some of his statues, she who helped him with his photographic experiments in the dark- room. The series she did of the different phases in the gesta-: V tion of Guernica will undoubtedly endure as a precious witness to Picasso's creative process. To avoid provoking Dora, who was prone to outbursts and temper tantrums, I refrained from encroaching on what was now her territory. Our relationship remained friendly but distant for a fairly long period of time, approximately the duration of the Spanish Civil War.
But curiously, as Dora abandoned photography to devote herself to painting — she was already involved in it before she became a photographer— her attitude also changed: Thus, on that day in September — it was the eigh- teenth or nineteenth, I think — I began my series for Life at the Brasserie Lipp, where Picasso often took his meals. Sabartes was with him. The clientele of that old brasserie was noticeably different from that of Les Deux-Magots, and especially from that which frequented the Cafe de Flore: The average age of its clients was slightly higher than that of the regulars at Le Flore, the fief- dom of young poets, painters, more or less "avant-garde," an- archistic, or revolutionary young poets, painters, singers, and filmmakers, but also young women, ephebi, and young men in search of a role, a career, in search of love or adventure.
Jacques Prevert and his "gang"; Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, still a long way from the "existentialist" movement, who were already fill- ing many sheets of paper on the marble tables; Picasso and his circle. As for myself, I had largely done my bit for Paris cafe life in Montparnasse, and was therefore not a true "regular" at Le Flore, but I had many friends and acquaintances there. I took a few photos of Picasso having lunch at the Brasserie Lipp, seated on vinyl in front of the wall decorated with ceram- ics — made by the father of Leon-Paul Fargue, a regular of the place — and chatting with Matisse's son, Pierre.
A little worried that I might be disturbing his customers, Marcelin Cazes, the 52 owner, watched me operate. Then, as usual, Picasso, flanked by Sabartes, crossed the boulevard Saint-Germain to have coffee at Le Flore, where he had arranged to meet several people. He signed a few autographs, wrote a dedication on his engravings to a woman writer from South America; then, at about three o'clock, we went to rue des Grands-Augustins. In this very old corner of Paris, the street bears the name of an old convent razed in I79 1 - I ts property extended to rue de Nevers, rue Guenegaud, and rue Christine, where Ger- trude Stein once lived and Alice Toklas still does.
The small town house occupied by Laperouse Restaurant, located at the corner of rue des Grands-Augustins and the quay of the same name, dates from the fifteenth century. I was already familiar with the seventeenth-century patrician lodgings at no. J and with the two upper floors, which had become Picasso's studio. Before Picasso moved in, Jean-Louis Barrault had rehearsed plays there, and I had sometimes attended these sessions in the "Barrault attic.
They reminded him of the Bateau- Lavoir, for which he was secretly nostalgic all his life, but they were even more spacious. He could feel he was inside a ship with its bridge, its stores, its hold. Another appealing feature of the building was that Balzac had set his Unknown Masterpiece there. It is in that locale — the Savoie-Carignan Hotel before the Revolution — that Balzac has the master Frenhofer meet Francois Porbus and Nicolas Poussin; it is there that the hero of his novel, in his quest for the absolute, moves farther and farther away from the representation of nature, creates and de- stroys his masterpiece, and dies.
Balzac's description of this house, of the steep, dark stairway, was in fact a rather striking resemblance. Moved and excited by the idea of taking the place of the illustrious shadow Frenhofer, Picasso immediately rented the studio. That was in And on the site of the Unknown Masterpiece he had painted the "well-known master- piece" Guernica.
In the place occupied by the famous canvas two years ear- lier, another panel, almost as large, now stood: Women at Their 53 Toilette. Marie Guttoli's tapestry work interested Picasso a great deal; several of his canvases had been reproduced with extraor- dinary fidelity as Aubussons. At that moment, he wanted to cre- ate a cartoon conceived directly for tapestry and had come up with the idea of using a collage technique. He had collected a large quantity of wallpaper from interior decorators, and had then cut out the women's clothing, but also their hands, their faces, and all the elements of the picture.
I did his portrait in front of that unfinished canvas. The creases and flaps of his raincoat seem to be part of the "collage" and an arm on the canvas seems to belong to his own body. I also took some of him seated next to the enor- mous potbelly stove with its long flue pipe, bought from a col- lector. Then he showed me his recent paintings. In very high relief, most of them depicted all the variations, all the deforma- tions possible of Dora Maar's facial features: Only her delicate hands with their tapered fingers and jeweled nails were sometimes treated with more indulgence.
Picasso then led me through one wing of his apartment to a small room that served as his "engraving studio. The ink deposited by the thousands of hands that had manipulated the crank handles had built up on them and hardened like asphalt, form- ing enormous black lumps. Almost a museum piece. It belonged to Louis Port, the engraver, who printed all my plates after Eugene Delatre's death. I liked this press a great deal and I bought it.
For a long time, it was consigned to Bois- geloup. Now that I have room, I brought it here. Lacouriere set up the studio for me. I have everything I need to work: He 54 would like to come to your place. Can he come right away? Can you see him in half an hour? I was myself in the middle of "tidying up": His Hispano- Suiza is waiting for him below. I let him see the series taken at the Brasserie Lipp, at Le Flore, in his studio. He is delighted by the portrait of him with his extraordinary stove, a portrait that later appeared in Life.
He would like to see some of my other photos. That is why he has come. I show them to him. Eager to become familiar with them, he demands more and more from me. I come to the series taken of Paris's under- belly, dating from — Why would the artist stubbornly persist in rendering what the lens can capture so well? That would be crazy, don't you think?
Photography came along at a particular moment to liberate painting from literature of all sorts, from the anecdote, and even from the subject. In any case, a certain aspect of the subject now belongs to the realm of photography. Shouldn't painters take advantage of their new-found freedom and do something else? I open a closet and take out some old cardboard boxes with my drawings in them, done in Berlin in Picasso is sur- prised.
He did not know I had done drawings. He looks at them carefully, is astonished, and says: Why don't you go on with it? You have a gold mine and you're working a salt mine. I explain to him why I have opted for photography. He often interrupts me and I listen to his objections, his criticism. And later, whenever we meet, the first question he asks is always: Have you started drawing again? I was very surprised to learn that one of my photos had been confis- cated. Could showing Picasso's hand holding a brush somehow have revealed a state secret, breached military security?
I racked my brain, but to no avail. I then examined the "palette," which also appears in the photo. Picasso, who rarely held a palette in his hand, had always gotten along by putting it on a chair, a stool, or on the floor. Most often, he did not use one at all. On rue des Grands -Augustins, he mixed his colors on a fold- ing table covered with a thick layer of newspaper.
When that covering had been saturated with paint, linseed oil, and turpen- tine, it would be pulled off and thrown away. In examining the photo closely, I discovered that a page of the paint-stained newspaper— Paris-Soir— contained an article on the pope and an- other on a cardinal. From the titles and texts, half covered with paint, you could still read: The Vati- can maintains that an alliance between Paris, London, and Moscow would open the door to Bolshevik penetration in Europe see late edition. From the second article, you could still read the following: The Lorrainian Saint receives homage both from the Supreme Pontiff and from.
What made the censor strike? Did he want to avoid a diplomatic incident with the Vatican? Did he suspect a practical joke, which, given the gravity of the situation, he judged unacceptable? In any case, my photo, confiscated by the censor, could not cross the Atlantic. Since that time, the phony war — the drole de guerre — is no longer droll at all, and the Paris we loved has become a Paris of green uniforms and "gray mice, " of swastikas waving over pub- lic buildings and major hotels, headquarters of the Komman- dantur and the Gestapo; a Paris without taxis, cigarettes, sugar, chocolate, fancy breads; a Paris of rhubarb, Jerusalem arti- 56 choke, rutabaga, saccharine; a Paris of lines and coupons, cur- fews and scrambled airwaves, propaganda newspapers and films; a Paris of German patrols, yellow stars, air raids, road- steads, arrests, execution notices.
At the start of the war, Picasso was working after a fashion in his Royan villa, "Les Volieres. He returned to Paris three times to get paint, brushes, canvases, reams of paper. The fol- lowing summer, he saw German troops enter Royan. Life was hard in occupied Paris, even for Picasso. No gasoline for his car, no coal to heat his studio. Like everyone else, he had to ac- commodate himself to the sinister war existence: He often had to make both legs of the journey on foot.
You could see him almost ev- ery evening at Cafe de Flore, the friendly, well-heated refuge where he felt quite at home, better than at home. It was there I met him sometimes. In , weary of going back and forth ev- ery day from the Right Bank to the Left, from his apartment to his studio, he decided to move to rue des Grands-Augustins for good.
He bought electric radiators, unusable because of the restricted current, and had gas appliances installed, which were just as ineffective for the same reason. Now hard at work, he gradually deserted Saint-Germain-des-Pres. The "cafe pe- riod" had ended. It had lasted eightjears.
There are some changes since my last visit: You climb and climb, passing the entrance to the Association des Huissiers de la Seine [Association of Seine bailiffs], which owns the building; you keep climbing in the half-darkness until a gigantic HERE, written by Picasso on a piece of cardboard, indicates the doorbell. Marcel, the chauffeur, opens the door for me. For many long years he has been Picasso's factotum and also his trusted 57 servant. He hangs canvases, adjusts frames, prepares crates, packs, unpacks, ships.
Passing through the green plants at the back entrance, I enter the vestibule, whose nooks and crannies, armchairs, and long table are filled with books, catalogs, let- ters, and photos. With every mail delivery, the piles grow like stalagmites. In the recess of the door leading to the studio, the first painting you see is a Matisse: A small Doua- nier Rousseau stands next to it: The Avenue in Montsouris Park, with its tall poplars and tiny human figures dressed in black.
A multitude of statues now fills this big boat of a place, some of them old acquaintances from Boisgeloup. But sud- denly, I am given a start: They have all been cast in bronze! I think of Breton, who praised Picasso for "squandering" perishable plaster. And by what tour de force did he manage to procure so much metal at the very moment when the Occupier was unbolting from their bases all the bronze statues of Paris, France, and Navarre, and stripping bis- tros of their pretty "zinc counters," even when they were really copper, to make into cannons?
But what about the others? I see more than fifty new bronzes, about twenty of them large. I have not yet recovered from my surprise when Picasso arrives. Dressed in shorts, a striped jersey, his arms bare — he looks like an itinerant wrestler ready to throw down the gauntlet — he embraces me, grabs me, and his black eyes bore into me.
We haven't seen each other for some time — I've changed a lot, haven't I? Look at the condi- tion of my hair. When I run across old portraits of myself, I get scared. Why don't you come see me more often?
No, you're not disturbing me. Since I don't go out to cafes anymore, I like to see my friends at home; I want to stay in touch with them. I've worked things out: I have good spot- lights now and I often paint at night as well. But here's the rea- 58 son I wanted to see you: And he wanted to force a photogra- pher on me. I would have nothing to do with that. I insisted it be you. And I'd be happy if you could accept this work. I like your photos of my sculptures. The ones taken of my new works are not so great. I'll show them to you. Where are those photos? Sabartes looks for them, Marcel looks for them, Picasso looks for them.
I saw them with my own eyes. And I left them on top on pur- pose," says Picasso. Everyone rummages through the heaps of paper. We find them at last, they were already submerged by a new avalanche. My Death's Head has turned into a walnut. Or something else could be made of it. What do you think?
We also look at my old photos of his sculptures. At first, I didn't want to hear a word about casting them in bronze. But Sabartes kept telling me: You need something solid. Bronze is for the ages. Finally, I gave in. What do you think of them? Espe- cially your monumental heads. Their big, curved, smooth white surfaces seem to have been eaten up by the shine and bumpiness of bronze.
I imagined them in white or pink marble. They would have been less compromised, it seems to me. But how did you manage to cast so much bronze? A few devoted friends trans- ported the plasters at night in handcarts to the foundry. And it was even riskier bringing them back here in bronze, under the noses of the German patrols. The 'merchandise" had to be camouflaged.
I am astonished at how many there are. Then suddenly, it got the better of me again. I did all this in the last three years, during the Occupation. Because I couldn't get out of Paris anymore, I turned my bathroom into a sculpture studio, the only room you can heat in this big old barn. That's where I made most of them. There are many more: The plasters you see here are the most recent ones. This big fellow I sculpted in February. And Picasso points to Man with Sheep which, at over two me- ters high, towers over this people of statues. Nude, planted squarely on his long, skinny legs, with a round, bald head — his surly face resembles Ambroise Vollard — the giant is clasping a lamb in the vise of his powerful arms.
His left hand has a firm grip on the spine of the heavy animal, which is struggling; his right hand is grasping three of its hooves as the fourth is get- ting away. Modeled very freely, with little balls of clay quickly pressed together, like certain large Etruscan terra-cottas, Man with Sheep looks like it came all in a rush. Next to it, on a turntable, is a large head of a young girl with an impassive face, square jaw, and powerful profile, a mass of hair falling to her neck.
A portrait of Dora Maar, no doubt. Another bronze cat, standing firmly on its four paws, has a swollen belly. They hunt birds, prowl, roam the streets like demons. They cast their wild eyes at you, ready to pounce on your face. And have you noticed that female cats in the wild are always pregnant? Obviously, they think of nothing but love.
I also see the roosters from Boisgeloup, then an odd little woman. One day at the flea market, I dug up a "high fashion" mannequin from the turn of the century, the Edwardian era, marvelously sculpted, with a high bustline, round behind, no arms or head. So I gave her arms and a head. The left arm comes from Easter Island — a gift from Pierre Loeb — the right arm and head are by me. All I did was adapt them to fit. Then there is a curious bovid head with long horns. Published December 18th by Authorhouse first published October 7th To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
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